AutoCAD R14 Training

Architectural Project

 

Aims and Objectives

A solid model in a computer is an integrated mathematical data that contains information about the edges, the surfaces, and the volume of the object that the model describes. Basically, the set of constructive solid geometry commands of AutoCAD is an engineering design tool for mechanical and manufacturing engineering. Given such a useful and powerful tool, there should not be any reason why we should limits its use only to the mentioned disciplines. In this project, you will make use of the constructive solid geometry modeling tool to create a three-dimensional model of a house. The rendered drawing of the completed model is shown in Figure 1.

The aim of pursuing this project are, to explore and appreciate the use of constructive solid modeling techniques on architecture projects, to widen the scope of engineering applications, and to broaden your perception on model creation. It is hoped that you might think of other applications too.

In order to make this project simple and easy to follow. The model has been simplified, and many minuts details have been omitted. Despite  such simplification and omission, it is not intended to disseminate that architectural projects should be simplified in such a way. After completing the model, you may, by all means, increase the detail of the model by adding more minute features to it.

Start a new drawing with the NEW command. Use ACADISO.DWG as the prototype drawing.

Run the DDLMODES commands to create six layers  F1, F2, STAIR, ROOF, W1, and W2. Layer F1 is used for the floor of the first level; Layer F2 is used for the floor of the second level; layer STAIR is used for the staircase; layer ROOF is used for the roof; Layer W1 is used for the wall of first level; and layer W2 is used for the wall of the secondlevel. Set the current layer to W1.

Command   DDLMODES

 

Layer Name Color
F1 YELLOW
F2 MAGENTA
ROOF BLUE
STAIR RED
W1 CYAN
W2 GREEN

 

Wireframes for the First Level

Figure 2  Dimensioned layout of the walls of the first level

On the first level, there are two major of object types the walls and the floor. Figure 2 shows the dimensioned layout of the floor of the first level. Use the MLSTYLE command to set the multiline style. Then, use the MLINE command to create the lines. After that, edit the joints with the MLEDIT command. Next, explode the multilines and convert them into regions. Finally, form a complex region with the SUBTRACT command.

Figure 3 shows the dimensioned layout the dimensioned layout of the floor plan of this level. Set the current layer to F1. Then, create the layout with th PLINE command.

FIG3.gif (1686 bytes)

Figure 3   Dimensioned layout of the floor of the first level

Wireframes for the Staircase

The staircase can be divided into three sections. You will need three sets of wireframe. Set the current layer to STAIR for holding the wireframe for the staircase. Move the UCS to a new position using the UCS command.

FIG4.gif (1609 bytes)

Figure 4  New viewing position

Command   UCS
Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World> ZA
Origin point <0,0,0>  FROM
Base point  END of [Pick at A (Figure 4)]
<Offset>  @0,0,180
Point on positive portion of Z-axis   @1,0

Create the first section of the staircase. Then, set the UCS to another position, and create the second section of the staircase. Do the same for third section of the staircase.

Figure 5 shows the dimensions for the three sections of the staircase.

Figure 5  Staircase in three sections

Wireframes for the Second  Level

On the second level, there are two major object types    the walls and the floor. Set the UCS back to WORLD, and then to a new position. See Figure 6.

Command   UCS
Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>  W

Command  UCS
Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World> OR
Origin point <0,0,0> 0,0,3060

Set the current layer to W2. Then, create the wireframes for the second level according to Figure 7.

FIG6.gif (1887 bytes)

Figure 6   New UCS position

Figure 7  Dimensioned layout for the walls of second level.

Set the current layer to F2. Refer to Figure 8. Create the wireframes for the floor of the second level.

FIG8.gif (2211 bytes)

Figure 8   Dimensioned layout for the floor of the second level

Figure 9  Dimensioned layout of the roofs

Wireframes for the Roofs

There are two roofs, one for the first level, and the other one for the second level. In total, you will need to create seven wireframe in three groups. From the wireframe, you will create seven extrude solids. For the roof of the first level, it is formed by intersection of three extrude solids. For the roof of the second level, it consists of two parts, each part is the intersection of two extruded solids, the completed roof of the second level is the union of two solids of intersections.

Apply the LAYER command to set the current layer to ROOF, and turns off the layers STAIR, W1, W2, and F2.

Reset the UCS back to WORLD by applying the WCS command.

Create the seven wireframe according to Figure 9.

Model of the First Level and the Staircase

Apply the LAYER command to set current layer to STAIR, and to turn off layer ROOF, W2, and F2. See Figure 10.

Apply the EXTRUDE command to extrude the wireframes, and the UNION command to unite the three sections of staircase together. See Figure 11.

FIG10.gif (2247 bytes)

Figure 10   Wirefram for the staircase and the first level.

Command   Extrude

Staircase Height of Extrusion
A -825
B -800
C 825

Use the LAYER command to set the current layer to F1. Then, apply the EXTRUDE command to extrude the wireframe for the floor for a distance of 180 units. See FIgure 11.

FIG11.gif (2379 bytes)

Figure 11  Floor and staircase created

Run the LAYER command to set the current layer to W1 and to turn off the layer F1. Then, execute the EXTRUDE command to create the walls of the first level. The height of extrusion is 2880. See Figure 12.

FIG12.gif (3955 bytes)

Figure 12  Walls created

On the walls, there should be openings for the doors and windows. Figure 13 shows the dimensioned layout of these openings. The height of the door openings is 2600 units. The window opening is 1000 unit from the top of the floor, and is 1200 units high.

Figure 13  Dimensions for the windows and doors.

Refer to the dimensions shown in Figure 13. Use the BOX command to create eight door openings. Use the FROM object snap, and take the base point at A, B, C, D, and E. See Figure 14.

FIG14.gif (4044 bytes)

Figure 14   Openings for the doors created

According to the dimensions shown in FIgure 13, apply the BOX command to create three window opening. Use the From object snape, and set the base point at A and B. See Figure 15.

FIG15.gif (6383 bytes)

Figure 15   Windows openings for the first level created

You have created eleven solid boxes for use as openings in the walls. At this stage, they are still separate entities. Run the SUBTRACT command to substract the boxes B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, and M from the wall A.

After subtraction, there should be no significant visual change to the model. Use the LAYER command to turn on layer F1.

Execute the UNION command to unite the wall and the floor together. See Figure 16. The model of the first level and the staircase are completed

FIG16.gif (5168 bytes)

Figure 16   Completed first level of the house

Model for the Second Level

The steps for making the model for the second level is similar. You will create the model for the floor, and then the model for the walls. After that, you will cut openings for the windows and doors.

Execute the LAYER command to set the current layer to F2, and to turn off all other layers except layer STAIR. See Figure 17.

FIG17.gif (2058 bytes)

Figure 17   Wireframe for the floor of the second level.

Run the EXTRUDE command to extrude the wireframe for the floor of the second level for a distance of -180 units. Then, execute the LAYER command to set the current layer to W2. See Figure 18.

FIG18.gif (2497 bytes)

Figure 18   Floor for the second level created

Layer W2 contains the wireframe for the walls of the second floor. Use the EXTRUDE command to extrude this wireframe for a distance of 2880 units. After extrusion, use the MOVE to translate the extruded solid a distance of 180 units in the current Z-axis direction. See Figure 19.

FIG19.gif (4031 bytes)

Figure 19   Walls of the second level created and translated

The walls and floor for the second level of the house are completed. Next, you will cut window and door openings on the walls. Figure 20 is a dimensioned layout of the windows and doors. The lower edge of the windows are 1000 units from the floor surface, and the windows are 1200 units high. The height of the doors are 2000 units.

 

Figure 20  Dimensioned layout of the window and door openings

Refer to the dimensions shown in Figure 20. Execute the BOX command to create five solid boxes for use as door openings. Use the FROM object snap, and set the base point at A, B, C, and D. See Figure 21.

FIG21.gif (4234 bytes)

Figure 21  Boxes for the door openings created.

Also refer to the dimensions shown in Figure 20. Create three solid boxes for use as window openings by using the BOX command. Use the FROM object snap, and set the base point A, B, and C. See Figure 22.

FIG22.gif (5062 bytes)

Figure 22   Boxes for the window openings created.

Apply the UNION command to unite the walls and the floor of the second level. Then, use the SUBTRACT command to subtract the openings C, D, E, F, G, H, J, and K from the wall. See Figure 23.

FIG23.gif (3650 bytes)

Figure 23   The second level completed

The model for the second level is completed.

Model for the Roofs.

There are seven wireframe in three groups. The roof for the second level needs two groups of wireframe, and the roof for the first level needs one group of wireframes.

You will extrude all the seven wireframes to become solids of extrusion. After extrusion, you will create three solids of intersection. Finally, you will unite two solids of intersection to become the roof of the second level, and leave the third solid of intersection as the roof of the first level.

Apply the LAYER command to set current layer to ROOF, and to turn off all other layers. See Figure 24.

FIG24.gif (1937 bytes)

Figure 24   Wireframe for the roofs.

Execute the EXTRUDE command to extrude the wireframes for the roof of the second level. The direction of extrusion depends on the Z-axis direction of the wireframes themselves, not the current UCS.

<Draw>     <Solids>    <Extrude>

Command   EXTRUDE

A 7200
B 10000
C 10000
D -100000

There are four solids of extrusion. Apply the INTERSECT command to obtain two side of intersection.

The two solids of intersection are components of the roof for the second level. Execute the UNION command to unite them together.

<Modify>     <Boolean>    <Union>

Command   UNION
Select object   [Pick the two solids of intersection]
Select object   [Enter]

FIG25.gif (2262 bytes)

Figure 25   Roof for the second level created

There are three wireframes left. Apply the EXTRUDE command on them to form three solids of extrusion.

<Draw>     <Solids>    <Extrude>

Command   EXTRUDE

A 5800
B 1700
C -9000

Complete the roof for the first level by applying the INTERSECT command on three solids of extrusion. The roofs for both levels are completed. See Figure 26.

<Modify>     <Boolean>    <Intersect>

Command   INTERSECT
Select object   [Pick the two solids of intersection]
Select object   [Enter]

FIG26.gif (1867 bytes)

Figure 26   Roofs completed

Details

To add details to the model, you will create four new drawings for the window, doors, and gate for insertion into the main drawing. Save the current drawing.

Start a new drawing with the NEW command.

Refer to the dimensions shown in Figure 27. Use the BOX command and the SUBTRACT command to create the window frame and the window panel.

After you have completed the window, apply the BASE command to set the insertion base point.

Command   BASE
Base Point  [Pick at A ( Figure 27.)]

FIG27.gif (3936 bytes)

Figure 27   Model of the window

Execute the SAVE command to save the drawing under the name. WINDOW.

Similar to the window, start another new drawing. Refer to the dimensions shown in Figure 28. Create a drawing called DOOR700. Remember to set the insertion base point with the BASE command.

FIG28.gif (4200 bytes)

Figure 28   Model of a door

According to Figure 29. create another new drawing called DOOR900. Do not forget to set the insertion base point with the BASE command.

FIG29.gif (4007 bytes)

Figure 29  Model of the second door

According to Figure 29, create another new drawing called DOOR900. Do not forget to set the insertion base point.

In addition to a window and two types of doors, there is a gate for the garage of the house. Make a drawing called GATE. The dimensions of the drawing is shown in Figure 30. Again, you must set the insertion base point.

FIG30.gif (3924 bytes)

Figure 30   Model of the gate

Now, you have four drawings in addition to the model of the house. Open the drawing for the house again.

Set the current layer to W1, and turn off all layers. See Figure 31.

FIG31.gif (3715 bytes)

Figure 31  The first level

Refer to Figure 31. Insert the drawing WINDOW at A, B, and C, the drawing DOOR700 at F, the drawing DOOR900 at D and E, and the drawing GATE at G.

Set the current layer to W2, and turn off all other layers. See Figure 32.

FIG32.gif (4421 bytes)

Figure 32  The second level

Insert the drawing WINDOW at A, B, and C, and the drawing DOOR700 at D, E, F, G, and H.

The model of the house is completed. Turn on all the layers. See Figure 33.

FIG33.gif (5426 bytes)

Figure 33    The completed house

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