AutoCAD 2013 Training

Architectural Project

 

Aims and Objectives

A solid model in a computer is an integrated mathematical data that contains information about the edges, the surfaces, and the volume of the object that the model describes. Basically, the set of constructive solid geometry commands of AutoCAD is an engineering design tool for mechanical and manufacturing engineering. Given such a useful and powerful tool, there should not be any reason why we should limits its use only to the mentioned disciplines. In this project, you will make use of the constructive solid geometry modeling tool to create a three-dimensional model of a house. The rendered drawing of the completed model is shown in Figure 1.

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\Image26.jpg
Figure 1: 3d Building

The aim of pursuing this project are, to explore and appreciate the use of constructive solid modeling techniques on architecture projects, to widen the scope of engineering applications, and to broaden your perception on model creation. It is hoped that you might think of other applications too.

In order to make this project simple and easy to follow. The model has been simplified, and many minuts details have been omitted. Despite  such simplification and omission, it is not intended to disseminate that architectural projects should be simplified in such a way. After completing the model, you may, by all means, increase the detail of the model by adding more minute features to it.

Using Startup system variable to control display of  New Drawing dialog box when a new drawing is started with NEW or QNEW.

Command: STARTUP
Enter new value for STARTUP <0>:
1

Using menubar system variable to control display of menu bar.

Command: MENUBAR
Enter new value for MENUBAR <0>: 1

Then start a new drawing with the NEW command. Use a wizard and pick setup procedure. Select decimal units and set an initial display area 8,000 X 12,000.

<File> <New...>

Command : NEW
[Create New Drawings]
Select how to begin :
Use a Wizards
Quick Setup
[OK]

Description: \\pc005\home\floor2013\startup.jpg

Figure 2: Quick setup 1

[Quick: Setup
Step 1 : Units
Decimal
Next >>
Description: \\pc005\home\floor2013\startup1.jpg
Figure 3: Quick setup 2

[Step 2 : Area
Width :
8000
Length :
20000
Finish]

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\2013\image1.jpg
 

 Use the LAYER command to create six additional layers. F1, F2, STAIR, ROOF, W1, and W2. Layer F1 is used for the floor of the first level; Layer F2 is used for the floor of the second level; layer STAIR is used for the staircase; layer ROOF is used for the roof; Layer W1 is used for the wall of first level; and layer W2 is used for the wall of the second level. Set the current layer to W1.

<Layers panel>    <Layer Properties>

Description: \\pc005\home\floor2013\layerprop.jpg
Figure 4: Layer properties

 

Layer Name

Color

 

F1

YELLOW

 

F2

MAGENTA

 

ROOF

BLUE

 

STAIR

RED

 

W1

CYAN

Current

W2

GREEN

 

 

Wireframes for the First Level

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\image\fig2.gif

Figure 5  Dimensioned layout of the walls of the first level

On the first level, there are two major of object types the walls and the floor. Figure 2 shows the dimensioned layout of the floor of the first level. Use the MLSTYLE command to set the multiline style. Then, use the MLINE command to create the lines. After that, edit the joints with the MLEDIT command. Next, explode the multilines and convert them into regions. Finally, form a complex region with the SUBTRACT command.

Figure 5 shows the dimensioned layout the dimensioned layout of the floor plan of this level. Set the current layer to F1. Then, create the layout with th PLINE command.

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\FIG3.gif

Figure 6   Dimensioned layout of the floor of the first level

Wireframes for the Staircase

The staircase can be divided into three sections. You will need three sets of wireframe. Set the current layer to STAIR for holding the wireframe for the staircase. Move the UCS to a new position using the UCS command.

Description: FIG4.gif (1609 bytes)

Figure 7  New viewing position

Switch to 3D Modeling workspace.

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\2013\Image01.jpg

<Home tab><Coordinates panel><Z Axis Vector>

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\2013\UCS-Z.jpg
Command  
UCS
Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>
ZA
Origin point <0,0,0> 
FROM
Base point  END of [Pick at A (Figure 4)]
<Offset> 
@0,0,180
Point on positive portion of Z-axis  
@1,0

Create the first section of the staircase. Then, set the UCS to another position, and create the second section of the staircase. Do the same for third section of the staircase.

<Home tab><View panel><Front>

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\image\Image53.jpg

Figure 8 shows the dimensions for the three sections of the staircase.

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\image\fig5.gif

Figure 8  Staircase in three sections

Wireframes for the Second  Level

On the second level, there are two major object types    the walls and the floor. Set the UCS back to WORLD, and then to a new position. See Figure 9.

<Home tab><Coordinates panel><World>

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\2013\UCS-w.jpg

Command   UCS
Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World> 
W

<Home tab><Coordinates panel><Origin>

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\2013\UCS-org.jpg

Command  UCS
Origin/ZAxis/3point/OBject/View/X/Y/Z/Prev/Restore/Save/Del/?/<World>
OR
Origin point <0,0,0>
0,0,3060

Set the current layer to W2. Then, create the wireframes for the second level according to Figure 11.

Description: FIG6.gif (1887 bytes)

Figure 9   New UCS position

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\image\fig7.gif

Figure11  Dimensioned layout for the walls of second level.

Set the current layer to F2. Refer to Figure 11. Create the wireframes for the floor of the second level.

Description: FIG8.gif (2211 bytes)

Figure 12   Dimensioned layout for the floor of the second level

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\image\fig9.gif

Figure 13  Dimensioned layout of the roofs

Wireframes for the Roofs

There are two roofs, one for the first level, and the other one for the second level. In total, you will need to create seven wireframe in three groups. From the wireframe, you will create seven extrude solids. For the roof of the first level, it is formed by intersection of three extrude solids. For the roof of the second level, it consists of two parts, each part is the intersection of two extruded solids, the completed roof of the second level is the union of two solids of intersections.

Apply the LAYER command to set the current layer to ROOF, and turns off the layers STAIR, W1, W2, and F2.

Reset the UCS back to WORLD by applying the WCS command.

Create the seven wireframe according to Figure 13.

Model of the First Level and the Staircase

Apply the LAYER command to set current layer to STAIR, and to turn off layer ROOF, W2, and F2. See Figure 14.

Apply the EXTRUDE command to extrude the wireframes, and the UNION command to unite the three sections of staircase together. See Figure 11.

Description: FIG10.gif (2247 bytes)

Figure 14   Wirefram for the staircase and the first level.

<Home tab><Modeling panel><Extrude>

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\2013\extrude.jpg

Command   Extrude

Staircase

Height of Extrusion

A

-825

B

-800

C

825

Use the LAYER command to set the current layer to F1. Then, apply the EXTRUDE command to extrude the wireframe for the floor for a distance of 180 units. See Figure 15.

Description: FIG11.gif (2379 bytes)

Figure 15  Floor and staircase created

Run the LAYER command to set the current layer to W1 and to turn off the layer F1. Then, execute the EXTRUDE command to create the walls of the first level. The height of extrusion is 2880. See Figure 16.

Description: FIG12.gif (3955 bytes)

Figure 16  Walls created

On the walls, there should be openings for the doors and windows. Figure 13 shows the dimensioned layout of these openings. The height of the door openings is 2600 units. The window opening is 1000 unit from the top of the floor, and is 1200 units high.

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\image\fig13.gif

Figure 17  Dimensions for the windows and doors.

Refer to the dimensions shown in Figure 17. Use the BOX command to create eight door openings. Use the FROM object snap, and take the base point at A, B, C, D, and E. See Figure 18.

Description: FIG14.gif (4044 bytes)

Figure 18   Openings for the doors created

According to the dimensions shown in Figure 17, apply the BOX command to create three window opening. Use the From object snape, and set the base point at A and B. See Figure 18.

Description: FIG15.gif (6383 bytes)

Figure 19   Windows openings for the first level created

You have created eleven solid boxes for use as openings in the walls. At this stage, they are still separate entities. Run the SUBTRACT command to substract the boxes B, C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, and M from the wall A.

After subtraction, there should be no significant visual change to the model. Use the LAYER command to turn on layer F1.

Execute the UNION command to unite the wall and the floor together. See Figure 20. The model of the first level and the staircase are completed

Description: FIG16.gif (5168 bytes)

Figure 20   Completed first level of the house

Model for the Second Level

The steps for making the model for the second level is similar. You will create the model for the floor, and then the model for the walls. After that, you will cut openings for the windows and doors.

Execute the LAYER command to set the current layer to F2, and to turn off all other layers except layer STAIR. See Figure 21.

Description: FIG17.gif (2058 bytes)

Figure 21   Wireframe for the floor of the second level.

Run the EXTRUDE command to extrude the wireframe for the floor of the second level for a distance of -180 units. Then, execute the LAYER command to set the current layer to W2. See Figure 22.

Description: FIG18.gif (2497 bytes)

Figure 22   Floor for the second level created

Layer W2 contains the wireframe for the walls of the second floor. Use the EXTRUDE command to extrude this wireframe for a distance of 2880 units. After extrusion, use the MOVE to translate the extruded solid a distance of 180 units in the current Z-axis direction. See Figure 23.

Description: FIG19.gif (4031 bytes)

Figure 23   Walls of the second level created and translated

The walls and floor for the second level of the house are completed. Next, you will cut window and door openings on the walls. Figure 20 is a dimensioned layout of the windows and doors. The lower edge of the windows are 1000 units from the floor surface, and the windows are 1200 units high. The height of the doors are 2000 units.

 

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\image\fig20.gif

Figure 24 Dimensioned layout of the window and door openings

Refer to the dimensions shown in Figure 24. Execute the BOX command to create five solid boxes for use as door openings. Use the FROM object snap, and set the base point at A, B, C, and D. See Figure 25.

Description: FIG21.gif (4234 bytes)

Figure 26  Boxes for the door openings created.

Also refer to the dimensions shown in Figure 24. Create three solid boxes for use as window openings by using the BOX command. Use the FROM object snap, and set the base point A, B, and C. See Figure 26.

Description: FIG22.gif (5062 bytes)

Figure 27   Boxes for the window openings created.

Apply the UNION command to unite the walls and the floor of the second level. Then, use the SUBTRACT command to subtract the openings C, D, E, F, G, H, J, and K from the wall. See Figure 27.

Description: FIG23.gif (3650 bytes)

Figure 27   The second level completed

The model for the second level is completed.

Model for the Roofs.

There are seven wireframe in three groups. The roof for the second level needs two groups of wireframe, and the roof for the first level needs one group of wireframes.

You will extrude all the seven wireframes to become solids of extrusion. After extrusion, you will create three solids of intersection. Finally, you will unite two solids of intersection to become the roof of the second level, and leave the third solid of intersection as the roof of the first level.

Apply the LAYER command to set current layer to ROOF, and to turn off all other layers. See Figure 28.

Description: FIG24.gif (1937 bytes)

Figure 28   Wireframe for the roofs.

Execute the EXTRUDE command to extrude the wireframes for the roof of the second level. The direction of extrusion depends on the Z-axis direction of the wireframes themselves, not the current UCS.

<Home tab><Modeling panel><Extrude>

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\2013\extrude.jpg

Command   EXTRUDE

A

10000

B

10000

C

10000

D

-100000

There are four solids of extrusion. Apply the INTERSECT command to obtain two side of intersection.

The two solids of intersection are components of the roof for the second level. Execute the UNION command to unite them together.

<Home tab>     <Solid Editing panel>    <Union>

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\2013\union.jpg

Command   UNION
Select object  
[Pick the two solids of intersection]
Select object  
[Enter]

Description: FIG25.gif (2262 bytes)

Figure 29   Roof for the second level created

There are three wireframes left. Apply the EXTRUDE command on them to form three solids of extrusion.

<Home tab>     <Modling panel>    <Extrude>

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\2013\extrude.jpg

Command   EXTRUDE

A

5800

B

1700

C

-9000

Complete the roof for the first level by applying the INTERSECT command on three solids of extrusion. The roofs for both levels are completed. See Figure 30.

<Home tab>     <Solid Editing panel>      <Intersect>

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\2013\intrasect.jpg

Command   INTERSECT
Select object  
[Pick the two solids of intersection]
Select object  
[Enter]

Description: FIG26.gif (1867 bytes)

Figure 30   Roofs completed

Details

To add details to the model, you will create four new drawings for the window, doors, and gate for insertion into the main drawing. Save the current drawing.

Start a new drawing with the NEW command.

Refer to the dimensions shown in Figure 31. Use the BOX command and the SUBTRACT command to create the window frame and the window panel.

After you have completed the window, apply the BASE command to set the insertion base point.

 

<Insert tab>     <Block Definition panel>      <Set Base Point>

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\2013\base.jpg
Command  
BASE
Base Point  [
Pick at A ( Figure 31.)]

Description: FIG27.gif (3936 bytes)

Figure 31   Model of the window

Execute the SAVE command to save the drawing under the name. WINDOW.

Similar to the window, start another new drawing. Refer to the dimensions shown in Figure 32. Create a drawing called DOOR700. Remember to set the insertion base point with the BASE command.

Description: FIG28.gif (4200 bytes)

Figure 32   Model of a door

According to Figure 32. create another new drawing called DOOR900. Do not forget to set the insertion base point with the BASE command.

Description: FIG29.gif (4007 bytes)

Figure 33  Model of the second door

According to Figure 33, create another new drawing called DOOR900. Do not forget to set the insertion base point.

In addition to a window and two types of doors, there is a gate for the garage of the house. Make a drawing called GATE. The dimensions of the drawing is shown in Figure 34. Again, you must set the insertion base point.

Description: FIG30.gif (3924 bytes)

Figure 34   Model of the gate

Now, you have four drawings in addition to the model of the house. Open the drawing for the house again.

Set the current layer to W1, and turn off all layers. See Figure 35.

Description: FIG31.gif (3715 bytes)

Figure 35  The first level

Refer to Figure 31. Insert the drawing WINDOW at A, B, and C, the drawing DOOR700 at F, the drawing DOOR900 at D and E, and the drawing GATE at G.

Set the current layer to W2, and turn off all other layers. See Figure 36.

Description: FIG32.gif (4421 bytes)

Figure 36  The second level

Insert the drawing WINDOW at A, B, and C, and the drawing DOOR700 at D, E, F, G, and H.

The model of the house is completed. Turn on all the layers. See Figure 37.

Description: FIG33.gif (5426 bytes)

Figure 37    The completed house

Documentation from 3D object

After studying this tutorial, you should be able to:

     Description: dot.gif (829 bytes)use the paper space of a drawing to construct a drawing document,
    
Description: dot.gif (829 bytes)construct floating viewports, and
    
Description: dot.gif (829 bytes)construct a 2D engineering document from a 3D object.

Before you construct a document from your 3D object, you should have an engineering title block ready for insertion. Insert your drawing title block

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\Image22.jpg

Now use the SOLVIEW command to construct an engineering drawing view. The SOLVIEW command enables you to construct four kinds of drawing views: UCS views, orthographic views, auxiliary views, and section views. Because the orthographic, auxiliary, and section views require a parent view, you have to use UCS views. Select the WCS as the UCS view and set the view display scale to 0.5. Then select a center position and two diagonal corners. After that, specify a drawing view name.

Create a new layout and delete default vport. Using Solview to create orthographic views.

To hide the frame of a viewport, simply create a new layer, add the viewport to this layer and turns the layer off.

Now create a new layer vports, set it to current.

Description: \\pc005\home\doc2013\Image8.jpg

Using Page setup Manager, set  this layout to be a4 size.

layout name : Layout 2
Paper size :
ISO A4 (297.00 x 210.00MM)
Scale
1:1
1mm = 1unit

[OK]

Use the DDINSERT command to insert a drawing title block. . Select your title block. Then uncheck the Specify Parameters on Screen box. After that, select the [OK] button.

Description: \\pc005\home\doc2013\new14.jpg 

 

 

 

<Draw>  <Modeling <Setup <View>

Command   SOLVIEW
Enter an option [UCS ORTH Auxiliary Section]:  
U
Enter an option [Named/World/Current]:   W
Enter view scale:   0.004
Specify view center:   [Select A (Figure 38]
Specify view center:   [Enter]
Specify first corner of viewport:   [Select B (Figure 38]
Specify first corner of viewport:   [Select C (Figure 38]
Enter View Name:   Top
 

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\Image19.jpg
Figure 38    The completed house
 

Enter an option [UCS ORTH Auxiliary Section]:   O
Specify side of viewport to project:   [Select A (Figure 39])
Specify view center:   [Select B (Figure 39]
Specify view center:   [Enter]
Specify first corner of viewport:   [Select C (Figure 39]
Specify first corner of viewport:   [Select D (Figure 39]
Enter View Name:   Front

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\Image20.jpg
Figure 39    The completed house
 

Enter an option [UCS ORTH Auxiliary Section]:   O
Specify side of viewport to project:   [Select A (Figure 40])
Specify view center:   [Select B (Figure 40]
Specify view center:   [Enter]
Specify first corner of viewport:   [Select C (Figure 40]
Specify first corner of viewport:   [Select D (Figure 40]
Enter View Name:   Side
Enter an option [UCS ORTH Auxiliary Section]:    [Enter]

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\Image21.jpg
Figure 40    The completed house

Create a new layout.
[Right click layout 2][Select New layout]

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\Image23.jpg

Using Page setup Manager, set  this layout to be a4 size.

layout name : Layout 3
Paper size :
ISO A4 (297.00 x 210.00MM)
Scale
1:1
1mm = 1unit

[OK]

Use the DDINSERT command to insert a drawing title block. . Select your title block. Then uncheck the Specify Parameters on Screen box. After that, select the [OK] button.

<Draw>  <Modeling <Setup <View>

Command   SOLVIEW
Enter an option [UCS ORTH Auxiliary Section]:  
U
Enter an option [Named/World/Current]:   W
Enter view scale:   0.01
Specify view center:   [Select A (Figure 41]
Specify view center:   [Enter]
Specify first corner of viewport:   [Select B (Figure 41]
Specify first corner of viewport:   [Select C (Figure 41]
Enter View Name:   ISO
Enter an option [UCS ORTH Auxiliary Section]:    [Enter]

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\Image24.jpg
Figure 41    The completed house

 

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\Image25.jpg

<View tab>  <Views Panel <Views <SW Isometric>

Description: \\pc005\home\ARCHIT2013\Image26.jpg

 

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