AutoCAD 2004 Training

3D Operations

 

Aims and Objectives

The aims of this tutorial are to let you display 3D solids in various shading modes, perform real-time rotation and zooming, and modify solid models. After studying this tutorial, you should be able to:

 

3D Real-time Rotation and Zooming

While designing, you can view a 3D object from various viewing directions in order to examine and gain a better understanding of the object by using the 3DORBIT command.

 

Start a new drawing from scratch. Use Metric defaults. Then use the BOX command to construct a solid box. After that, set the display to an isometric view. See Figure 1.

<File> <New...>

Command: NEW

[Create New Drawing
Start from Scratch
Metric
OK ]

 

<Draw> <Solids> <Box>

Command: BOX
Specify corner of box or [CEnter]: 10,10
Specify corner or [Cube/Length]: @40,30,20

<View> <3D Views> <SW Isometric>

fig1.gif (1908 bytes)
Figure 1 Box constructed and display set to isometric view

Select the Orbit item of the View pull-down menu to use the 3DORBIT command. See Figure 2. Note that the 2D UCS icon changes to a 3D UCS icon.

<View> <3D Orbit>

Command: 3DORBIT
Press ESC or ENTER to exit, or right-click to display shortcut-menu.

fig2.gif (2622 bytes)

Figure 2 UCS icon changed

Now hold down the left mouse button. Then drag the mouse around. You can see that the display changes as well in real-time.

Select the right mouse button. A shortcut menu displays. See Figure 3.

fig3.gif (2467 bytes)

Figure 3 Shortcut menu

Select the Pan item. See Figure 4.

fig4.gif (1978 bytes)

Figure 4 Panning

Hold down the left mouse button. Then drag the mouse around to pan the display. After that, select the right mouse button to display the shortcut menu and select the Zoom item. See Figure 5.

fig5.gif (1938 bytes)

Figure 5 Zooming

Hold down the left mouse button. Then drag the mouse around to zoom in and zoom out. After that, select the right mouse button to display the shortcut menu and select the Shading Modes item. See Figure 6.

FIG6.gif (4769 bytes)

Figure 6 Shading modes cascading menu

Select the Gouraud Shaded item. See Figure 7.

FIG7.gif (1765 bytes)

Figure 7 Gouraud shaded

Use the shortcut menu again. Then select the Wireframe item. After that, select the Exit item. See Figure 8.

FIG8.gif (2057 bytes)

Figure 8 Wireframe mode

As can be seen in the shortcut menu, there are other display tools. Try them by yourself to find out how they work.

Editing 3D Solids

A solid can be modified in several ways. You can change its faces, edges, and body. Select the Solids Editing item of the Modify pull-down menu to display the cascading menu. See Figure 9.

FIG9.gif (9148 bytes)

Figure 9 Solid editing cascading menu

Refer to Figure 9. The cascading menu has four major parts.

The first part has three items: Union, Subtract, and Intersect. They are the Boolean operations that you can use to combine two or more solids together.

The second part has eight items: Extrude faces, Move faces, Offset faces, Delete faces, Rotate faces, Taper faces, Color faces, and Copy faces. They concern modification of faces of a solid.

The third part has two items: Color edges and Copy edges. They change the edges of a solid.

The fourth part has five items: Imprint, Clean, Separate, Shell, and Check. They are used to modify the body of a solid.

Now select the Shell item to construct a hollow solid. See Figure 10.

<Modify> <Solids Editing> <Shell>

Command: SOLIDEDIT
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: BODY
[Imprint/seParate solids/Shell/cLean/Check/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: SHELL
Select a 3D solid: [Select A (Figure 8).]
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Select B (Figure 8). Now two faces are selected because the edge B is shared by the upper horizontal face and the end vertical face.]
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: A [Because the upper horizontal face is not to be removed. You have to add this face back to the selection set.]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: [Select C (Figure 8). Now the upper horizontal face together with the adjacent vertical face are selected. Because the selected vertical face is not removed, you are adding only one face back to the selection set.]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: [Enter]
Enter the shell offset distance: 3
Enter a body editing option
[Imprint/seParate solids/Shell/cLean/Check/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]
Solids editing automatic checking: SOLIDCHECK=1
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]

FIG10.gif (2185 bytes)

Figure 10 Solid shelled

Select the Copy edges item to copy an edge of the solid. See Figure 11.

<Modify> <Solids Editing> <Copy edges>

Command: SOLIDEDIT
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: EDGE
Enter an edge editing option [Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: COPY
Select edges or [Undo/Remove]: [Select A (Figure 10).]
Select edges or [Undo/Remove]: [Enter]
Specify a base point or displacement: 10<0
Specify a second point of displacement: [Enter]
Enter an edge editing option [Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]
Solids editing automatic checking: SOLIDCHECK=1
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]

FIG11.gif (2238 bytes)

Figure 11 An edge copied

The copied edges is not a part of the solid. To include the edge to the solid, select the Imprint item. Note that there will be no visual change on your screen after imprinting.

<Modify> <Solids Editing> <Imprint>

Command: SOLIDEDIT
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: BODY
[Imprint/seParate solids/Shell/cLean/Check/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: IMPRINT
Select a 3D solid: [Select A (Figure 11).]
Select an object to imprint: [Select B (Figure 11).]
Delete the source object <N>: Y
Select an object to imprint: [Enter]
Enter a body editing option
[Enter an edge editing option [Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]
Solids editing automatic checking: SOLIDCHECK=1
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>:
[Enter]

The copied edge now becomes a part of the solid. Use the SOLIDEDIT command to extrude a face of the solid. See Figure 12.

<Modify> <Solids Editing> <Extrude Faces>

Command: SOLIDEDIT
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: FACE
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: EXTRUDE
Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: [Select B (Figure 11).]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: R
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Select A (Figure 11).]
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Enter]
Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: 10
Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: [Enter]
Solid validation started
Solid validation completed
Enter a face editing option
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]
Solids editing automatic checking: SOLIDCHECK=1
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]


FIG12.gif (1951 bytes)

Figure 12 A face extruded

Use the PLINE command to construct a polyline. Then use the COPY command to make a copy. See Figure 13.

<Draw> <Polyline>

Command: PLINE
Specify start point: 20,15
Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: @20<0
Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: A
Specify endpoint of arc or [Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius/Second pt/Undo/Width]: @8<90
Specify endpoint of arc or
[Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius/Second pt/Undo/Width]: L
Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: @20<180
Specify next point or [Arc/Close/Halfwidth/Length/Undo/Width]: A
Specify endpoint of arc or [Angle/CEnter/CLose/Direction/Halfwidth/Line/Radius/Second pt/Undo/Width]: CL

<Modify> <Copy>

Command: COPY
Select objects: LAST
Select objects: [Enter]
Specify base point or displacement, or [Multiple]: 12<90
Specify second point of displacement or <use first point as displacement>: [Enter]

FIG13.gif (2507 bytes)

Figure 13 Polyline constructed and copied

Imprint the polylines to the solid. Then extrude the imprinted edges. See Figure 14.

<Modify> <Solids Editing> <Imprint>

Command: SOLIDEDIT
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: BODY
[Imprint/seParate solids/Shell/cLean/Check/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: IMPRINT
Select a 3D solid: [Select A (Figure 13).]
Select an object to imprint: [Select B (Figure 13).]
Delete the source object <N>: Y
Select an object to imprint: [Select C (Figure 13).]
Delete the source object <N>: Y
Select an object to imprint: [Enter]
Enter a body editing option
[Enter an edge editing option [Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]
Solids editing automatic checking: SOLIDCHECK=1
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]

<Modify> <Solids Editing> <Extrude Faces>

Command: SOLIDEDIT
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: FACE
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: EXTRUDE
Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: [Select B (Figure 13).]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: [Select C (Figure 13).]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: R
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Select D (Figure 13).]
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Enter]
Specify height of extrusion or [Path]: -10
Specify angle of taper for extrusion <0>: [Enter]
Solid validation started
Solid validation completed
Enter a face editing option
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]
Solids editing automatic checking: SOLIDCHECK=1
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]

FIG14.gif (3358 bytes)

Figure 14 Imprinted edges extruded

Use the SOLIDEDIT command to move two faces. See Figure 15.

<Modify> <Solids Editing> <Move Faces>

Command: SOLIDEDIT
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: FACE
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: MOVE
Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: [Select A (Figure 14).]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: [Enter]
Specify a base point or displacement: -10,0,10
Specify a second point of displacement: [Enter]
Enter a face editing option
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]
Solids editing automatic checking: SOLIDCHECK=1
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]

FIG15.gif (3067 bytes)

Figure 15 Faces moved

Use the SOLIDEDIT command to offset four faces. See Figure 16.

<Modify> <Solids Editing> <Offset Faces>

Command: SOLIDEDIT
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: FACE
Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: OFFSET
Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: [Select A (Figure 15).]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: [Select B, C, and D (Figure 15).]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: R
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Select E (Figure 15).]
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Enter]
Specify the offset distance: 2
Solid validation started
Solid validation completed
Enter a face editing option
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]
Solids editing automatic checking: SOLIDCHECK=1
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]

FIG16.gif (2846 bytes)

Figure 16 Faces offset

Use the SOLIDEDIT command to delete four faces. See Figure 17.

<Modify> <Solids Editing> <Delete Faces>

Command: SOLIDEDIT
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: FACE
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: DELETE
Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: [Select A (Figure 16).]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: [Select B, C, and D (Figure 16).]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: R
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Select E (Figure 16).]
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Enter]
Enter a face editing option
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]
Solids editing automatic checking: SOLIDCHECK=1
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]

FIG17.gif (2621 bytes)

Figure 17 Faces deleted

Use the SOLIDEDIT command to rotate four faces. See Figure 18.

<Modify> <Solids Editing> <Rotate Faces>

Command: SOLIDEDIT
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: FACE
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: ROTATE
Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: [Select A (Figure 17).]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: [Select B, C, and D (Figure 17).]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: R
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Select E (Figure 17).]
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Enter]
Specify an axis point or [Axis by object/View/Xaxis/Yaxis/Zaxis] <2points>: CEN of [Select A (Figure 17).]
Specify the second point on the rotation axis: @0,0,1
Specify a rotation angle or [Reference]: 10
Solid validation started
Solid validation completed
Enter a face editing option
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]

FIG18.gif (3370 bytes)

Figure 18 Faces rotated

Use the SOLIDEDIT command to taper four faces. See Figure 19.

<Modify> <Solids Editing> <Taper Faces>

Command: SOLIDEDIT
Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: FACE
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: TAPER
Select faces or [Undo/Remove]: [Select A (Figure 18).]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: [Select B, C, and D (Figure 18).]
Select faces or [Undo/Remove/ALL]: R
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Select E (Figure 18).]
Remove faces or [Undo/Add/ALL]: [Enter]
Specify the base point: CEN of [Select A (Figure 18).]
Specify another point along the axis of tapering: @0,0,1
Specify the taper angle: 10
Solid validation started
Solid validation completed
Enter a face editing option
[Extrude/Move/Rotate/Offset/Taper/Delete/Copy/coLor/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]
Solids editing automatic checking: SOLIDCHECK=1
Enter a solids Enter a solids editing option [Face/Edge/Body/Undo/eXit] <eXit>: [Enter]

FIG19.gif (2386 bytes)

Figure 19 Faces tapered

The model is complete. Save your drawing.

<File> <Save>

Summary of New Commands

In making this model, you have learned how to use the display command to perform real-time shading, zooming, and rotating and how to edit a solid object by modifying its body, edges, and faces.

Back