AutoCAD R14 Training

Tutorial - Floor Plan

 

Aims and Objectives

To help you gain an appreciation of applying AutoCAD commands in engineering drawing production, you will create a floor plan by using multilines. See Figure 1. In making this drawing, you will use multiple, polyline, trace, donut, and 2D solid object.:

Figure 1

Figure 1: Floor plan

Modeling

Start a new drawing with the NEW command. Use a wizard and pick setup procedure. Select decimal units and set an initial display area 8,000 X 12,000.

<File> <New...>

Command : NEW
[Create New Drawing]
Use a Wizard
Quick Setup
OK

[Quick: Setup
Step 1 : Units
Decimal
Next >>

[Step 2 : Area
Width : 8000
Length : 12000
Done]

Use the LAYER command to create an additional layer called Plan and set this layer as the current layer.

<Format>    <Layer...>

<New>
Name : Plan
Current layer : Plan

 

Multiple Lines

Multiple lines are sets of parallel lines. They are very useful in 2D architechural or interior design drawings. By using the MLINE command, you may create up to 16 parallel lines at the same time. The style of the multiple lines is set by the MLSTYLE command. To edit a multiple line, you may use MLEDIT command,

From the format pull-down menu, select the Multiline Style... item to use the MLSTYLE command to set up four multiline Style. See Figure 2.

<Format>    <Multiline Style....>

Command: MLSTYLE

Next to the item Name:, key in 120WALL. Description is Internal Wall. Select  the [Add] Button to create a new style.

[Multiline Style
Multiline Style
Name : 120WALL
Desciption: Internal Wall
Add]

Figure 2

Figure 2  MLINE command dialog box

Select the [Element Properties...] button to bring out another dialog. box. See Figure 3.

[Element Properties...]

The second dialog box allows you to set the number, color, and linetypes of parallel lines. Change the offset of the first line to 60 units, and the offset of the second line to -60 units. Select [OK] button.

[Element Properties

Offset     Color     Lyype
60        Bylayer    Bylayer
-60      Bylayer    Bylayer
OK]

Figure 3

Figure 3:  Element Properties dialog box

When th main dialog box returns, select the [ Multline Properties...] button. Another dialog box is displayed. See Figure 4.

[Multiline Properties...]

In this dialog box, you may set the end cap style and fill the multilines. Select the boxes under Start and End that are next to the item Line. Also turn Fill on with color cyan. Select the [OK] Button.

[Multiline Properties

Line             Start             End
Angle            90             90
Fill                On
Color...         Cyan    
OK]

Figure 4

Figure 4:  Multiline Properties dialog box

On returning to the main dialog box, select the [ Save...] button. A multiline style is created.

[Save ...]
Save in  [c:\students\]
File name :  acad
[Save]

Try on your own to create three more multiline style. In total, you should have four styles. See below.

Name Description Element Properties Multiline Properties
120WALL Internal Wall 60

-60

Bylayer

Bylayer

Bylayer

ByLayer

Line Start End
Angle 90 90
Fill : Yes
Color : Cyan
200WALL External Wall 100

-100

Bylayer

Bylayer

Bylayer

ByLayer

Line Start End
Angle 90 90
Fill : Yes
Color : Cyan
200WINDOW Window 100

0

-100

Bylayer

Bylayer

Bylayer

Bylayer

Bylayer

Bylayer

Line Start End
Angle 90 90
Fill : No
200BALCONY Balcony 100

-100

Bylayer

Bylayer

Bylayer

Bylayer

Line Start End
Angle 90 90
Fill : No

After setting four multiline styles, you can start to create the floor plan. From the Draw pull-down menu, select the Multiline item to run the MLINE command to create three segments of the outer wall. See Figure 5.

<Draw>    <Multiline>

Command : MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 20.00, Style = STANDARD
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: S
Set Mline scale <20.00>: 1
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: ST

Choose the 200WALL, style for the first part of the floor plan.

Mstyle name (or ?): 200WALL
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>:J

Justification determines how the multiline is drawn between the points that you select. Top justification means that all measurement will be taken from the topmost multiline.

Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: TOP
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: 2500,0
<To point>: @2500<180
Undo/<To point>: @10000<90
Close/Undo/<To point>: @500<0
Close/Undo/<To point>: [Enter]

Figure 5

Figure 5 :  Multline 200WALL created

Because the first multiline segment draws from right to left, AB of Figure 3. 117 is the topmost multiline. As such, the length of the wall AB, BC, and CD are 2500,10000, and 500, repectively. Create another multiline for the window opening. Use style 200WINDOW. Again justification is top. See Figure 6.

Command : [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: ST
Mstyle name (or ?): 200WINDOW
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200WINDOW
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: TOP
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200WINDOW
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: END of [Select E (Figure 5)]
<To point>: @3000<0
Undo/<To point>: [Enter]


Figure 6

Figure 6: Multiline 200WINDOW created

Make another multiline segment with 200WALL style. See Figure 7.

Command : [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200WINDOW
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: ST
Mstyle name (or ?): 200WALL
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: TOP
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: END of [Select A (Figure 6)]
<To point>: @500<0
Undo/<To point>:[Enter]

Figure 7

Figure 7 : Multiline 200WALL created

Draw two segments of the balcony using 200BALCONY style. See Figure 8.

Command : [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: ST
Mstyle name (or ?):200BALCONY
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200BALCONY
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: TOP
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200BALCONY
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: END of [Select A (Figure 7)]
<To point>: @2000<0
Undo/<To point>: @3300<270
Close/Undo/<To point>: [Enter]

Figure 8

Figure 8 : Multiline 200BALCONY created

Repeat the MLINE command to complete the outer wall. Use 200WALL style. See figure 9.

Command: [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200BALCONY
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: ST
Mstyle name (or ?): 200WALL
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: Top
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: END of [Select A (Figure 8).]
<To point>: @6700<270
Undo/<To point>: @2600<180
Close/Undo/<To point>: [Enter]

Figure 9

Figure 9 :  Outer wall created

The outer walls are complete. In making these walls, you have used three types of multiline styles - 200WALL, 200WINDOW, and 200BALCONY. Now, you will use the 120WALL style to create the internal walls.

Repeat the MLINE command to create eight wall segments. See figure 10.

Command: [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 200WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: ST
Mstyle name (or ?): 120WALL
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: TOP
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: END of [Select A (Figure 9).]
<To point>: @900<270
Undo/<To point>: [Enter]

With top justification and the second point of the multiline segment pointing toward 270 direction, the start point of the multiline aligns with point A of Figure 9.

The next line segment should align with B of Figure 9. Because the direction of this line segment is in 180 direction, justification is bottom. See Figure 10.

Command: [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Bottom, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <bottom>: B
Justification = Bottom, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: END of [Select B (Figure 9).]
<To point>: @3000<180
Undo/<To point>: [Enter]

The next segment is 3100 units offset from C of Figure 9 and is toward 0 direction. Therefore, justification is top.

Command: [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: T
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: FROM
Base point: END of [Select C (Figure 9).]
<Offset>: @3100<270
<To point>: @2000<0
Undo/<To point>: [Enter]

The next segment starts from 2600 units in 90 direction of D of Figure 9.

Command: [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: B
Justification = Bottom, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: FROM
Base point: END of [Select D (Figure 9.)]
<Offset>: @2600<90
<To point>: @1800<0
Undo/<To point>: @200<270
Close/Undo/<To Point>: [Enter]

The next segment starts from 1800 units in 0 direction of D of Figure 9.

Command: [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: T
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: FROM
Base point: END of [Select D (Figure 9.)]
<Offset>: @1800<0
<To point>: @1800<90
Undo/<To point>:[Enter]

The next segment starts from 2600 units in 90 direction of E of Figure 9

Command: [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: T
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: FROM
Base point: END of [Select E (Figure 9).]
<Offset>: @2600<90
<To point>: @1800<180
Undo/<To point>: [Enter]

The next segment starts from 1000 units in 90 direction of E of Figure 9.

Command: [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: T
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: FROM
Base point: END of [Select E (Figure 9).]
<Offset>: @1000<90
<To point>: @1680<180
Undo/<To point>: @100<270
Close/Undo/<To point>: [Enter]

The next segment starts from 1800 units in 180 direction of E of Figure 9.

Command: [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: T
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: FROM
Base point: END of
[Select E (Figure 9).]
<Offset>: @1800<180
<To point>: @100<90
Undo/<To point>: [Enter]

Figure 10
Figure 10:  Internal walls created

Repeat the MLINE command to create another multiline segment. The multilines created are filled. To speed up display regeneration, turn off the Fill mode by applying the FILL command. In order for the new Fill mode to take effect, issue the REGEN command. See Figure 11.

Command: [Enter]
MLINE
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: J
Top/Zero/Bottom <top>: T
Justification = Top, Scale = 1.00, Style = 120WALL
Justification/Scale/STyle/<From point>: FROM
Base point: END of [Select A (Figure 10).]
<Offset>: @1200<270
<To point>: PERP to [Select B (Figure 10).]
Undo/<To point>: [Enter]


Command: FILL
ON/OFF <ON>: OFF

Command : REGEN
Regenerating drawing

Figure 11
Figure 11:  Fill mode turned off

 

You can join multiline line segments together by using the MLEDIT command. From the Modify pull-down menu, select the Object cascading menu and then the Multiline... item. See Figure 12.

<Modify>     <Object>    <Multiline...>

Command : MLEDIT

In the Multiline Edit Tools dialog box, select the first row of the third column - Corner joint. Then select the [OK] button.

Figure 12

Figure 12 : Corner joint selected.

After selecting the corner joint, edit two joints.

Select first mline: [Select A ( Figure 11).]
Select second mline:
[Select B ( Figure 11).]
Select first mline(or Undo):
[Select C ( Figure 11).]
Select second mline:
[Select D ( Figure 11).]
Select first mline(or Undo): [Enter]

Repeat the MLEDIT command and select second row of the second column - Open tee.

Command : MLEDIT

Figure 13
Figure 13 :  Open tee selected

Edit the other joints

Select first mline: [Select E (Figure 11).]
Select second mline:
[Select F (Figure 11).]
Select first mline(or Undo):
[Select G (Figure 11).]
Select second mline:
[Select H (Figure 11).]
Select first mline(or Undo):
[Select J (Figure 11).]
Select second mline:
[Select K (Figure 11).]
Select first mline(or Undo):
[Select L (Figure 11).]
Select second mline:
[Select M (Figure 11).]
Select first mline(or Undo):
[Select P (Figure 11).]
Select second mline:
[Select Q (Figure 11).]
Select first mline(or Undo):
[Select R (Figure 11).]
Select second mline:
[Select S (Figure 11).]
Select first mline(or Undo):
[Select T (Figure 11).]
Select second mline:
[Select U (Figure 11).]
Select first mline(or Undo): [Enter]

Set Fill on and regenerate the drawing. See Figure 14.

Command : Fill
ON/OFF : ON

<View>     <Regen>

Command : REGEN
Regenerating drawing.

Figure 14: Floor plan completed

 

Edit by Stretching

If you examine Figure 14 carefully and compare it with Figure 1, you may find that the size of a wall is incorrect. Use the STRETCH command to correct it. See Figure 15.

<Modify>     <Stretch>

Command: STRETCH
Select objects to stretch by crossing-window or crossing-polygon...
Select objects: CROSS
First corner: [Select A (Figure 14).]
Second corener: [Select B (Figure 14).]
Select objects: [Enter]
Base point or displacement: 200<90
Second point of displacement: [Enter]

Figure 15

Figure 15 : Wall stretched

Door

In the floor plan, there are six doors. You will draw one door, use it to create a block, and insert the block six times.
To draw the door, use the ARC command to draw an arc and the LINE command to draw a line. See Figure 16.

<Draw>    <Line>

Command: LINE
From point: END of [Select A (Figure 15).]
To point: @600<90
To point: [Enter]

<Draw>    <Arc>     <Center, Start, End>

Command: ARC
Center/<Start point>: C
Center: END of [Select A (Figure 15).]
Start point: @600<0
Angle/Length of chord/<End point>: @600<90

Figure 16

Figure 16 :  Door Created

From the Draw pull-down menu, select the Block cascading menu and then the Make... item to run the BMAKE command to make a block called Door. Select the line and arc as object for the block.

<Draw>     <Block>    <Make...>

[Block Definition
Block name: DOOR
Base Point
Select Point< ]

Insertion base point: END of [Select C (Figure 16).]
Select Object <   ]
Select object: [Select A and B (Figure 16).]
Select object: [Enter]
[Retain Objects    No
OK]

Since the line and arc selected for making the block are not retained, they are deleted. Now, you have a block called DOOR residing in memory. With this block, use the DDINSERT command to make six insertions.

Select the BLOCK... item from the Insert pull-down menu to insert the block Door.

<Insert>     <Block...>

Command : DDINSERT
[Insert
Block : DOOR
OK ]

Insertion point: END of [Select C (Figure 16)]
X scale factor <1> / Corner /XYZ: 1
Y scale factor (default=X): 1
Rotation angle <0>: 0

Repeat the DDINSERT command to insert five more doors. See Figure 17. In total, there are six door. Details of the remaining five insertions are as follows.

Insertion point X scale factor Y scale factor Rotation angle
END of  [Select D (Figure 16).] 1 -1 270
END of  [Select E (Figure 16).] 1 1 90
END of  [Select F (Figure 16).] 1 -1 270
END of  [Select G (Figure 16).] 1 1 -90
END of  [Select H (Figure 16).] 1.5 1.5 0

Figure 17

Figure 17 : Doors inserted.

Regions

A region is a special kind of entire. It is defined from a 2D closed area. You may create a closed area using a combination of lines, arcs, polylines, planar 3D polylines, circles, arcs, ellipse, elliptical arcs, and splines. The entires that form a closed area must not intersect each other. With two or more regions, you can combine them together by joining (use the UNION command), cutting (use the SUBTRACT command), or intersecting (use the INTERSECT command).

Figure 18 shows three wash room facilities for the floor plan. You will create them as 2D regions in the chapter and insert them as blocks to the floor plan.

Figure 18

Figure 18 : Wash room facilities

Rectangle

First you will draw a rectangle. A rectangle is a closed rectangular polyline. From the Draw pull-down menu, select the Rectangle item to use the RECTANG command. Set the fillet radius and chamfer distance of the four corners to zero.

Command: RECTANG
Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width/<First corner>: F
Fillet radius for rectangles <0.0000>: 0
Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width/<First corner>: C
First chamfer distance for rectangles <0.0000>: 0
Second chamfer distance for rectangles <0.0000>: [Enter]
Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width/<First corner>: 600,4100
Other corner: @600,1200

After making a rectangle, select the 2 Points item from the Circle cascading menu of the Draw menu to create a circle. See Figure 19.

<Draw>     <Circle>    <2 Points>

Command: Circle
CIRCLE 3P/2P/TTR/<Center point>: 2P
First point on diameter: MID of [Select A (Figure 19).]
Second point on diameter: @4000<180

Figure 19

Figure 19 : Rectangle and circle created

Use the REGION command to create two regions from the rectangle and the circle. When you form a region from a closed area, you may choose to retain or to delete the original objects. To delete the original object after they are used to form a region, set the DELOBJ system variable to 1.

Command : DELOBJ
New value for DELOBJ : 1

From the Draw pull-down menu, select the Region item to use the REGION command. Because you have set DELOBJ to 1, the original rectangle and circle are deleted after creating the regions.

<Draw>     <Region>

Command : REGION
Select object : [Select B and C (Figure 19).]
Select object : [Enter]

Although there is no noticeable visual change in your screen display, the two objects are no more rectangle polyline or circle. They are regions.

Complex Region

As aforementioned, you may combine two or more regions to form a complex region. You can unite, subtract, and intersect regions by using the UNION, SUBTRACT, and INTERSECT commands, repectively. The union of two regions is a complex region whose area contains the area of the first region and that of the second region. The subtraction of two regions is a complex region whose area is found in the first region but not in the second region. The intersection of two regions is a complex region whose area is found in both the first region and the second region.

From the Modify pull-down menu, select the Booleam cascading menu and then the intersect item to use the INTERSECT command to form an intersection of the rectangular and circular regions. See Figure 20.

<Modify>     <Boolean>    <Intersect>

Command : INTERSECT
Select object : [Select B and C (Figure 19).]
Select object : [Enter]

Figure 20

Figure 20 : Common area of the rectangular and circular regions

To complete the washing basin, add an ellipse. See Figure 21.

<Draw>     <Ellipse>    <Axis, End>

Command: ELLIPSE
Arc/Center/<Axis endpoint 1>: FROM
Base point: QUA of [Select A (Figure 20).]
<Offset>: @50<180
Axis endpoint 2: @400<180
<Other axis distance>/Rotation: 300

Figure 21

Figure 21 : Ellipse created

The washing basin is complete. Now, you will create the toilet. Use the RECTANG command to create two rectangles. See Figure 22.

<Draw>     <Rectangle>

Command: RECTANG
Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width/<First corner>: 1500,5200
Other corner: @200,600

Command: [Enter]
RECTANG
Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width/<First corner>: FROM
Base point: END of  [Select A (Figure 22).]
<Offset>: @100<90
Other corner: @300,400

Figure 22

Figure 22 : Rectangle created

Create two ellipses and two circle. See Figure 23.

<Draw>     <Ellipse>    <Center>

Command: ELLIPSE
Arc/Center/<Axis endpoint 1>: C
Center of ellipse: MID of [Select B (Figure 22).]
Axis endpoint: @300<0
<Other axis distance>/Rotation: 200

Command: ELLIPSE
Arc/Center/<Axis endpoint 1>: C
Center of ellipse: MID of
[Select B (Figure 22).]
Axis endpoint: @250<0
<Other axis distance>/Rotation: 150

<Draw>     <Circle>    <Center, Radius>

Command: CIRCLE
3P/2P/TTR/<Center point>: END of
[Select A (Figure 22).]
Diameter/<Radius> 50

Command: [Enter]
CIRCLE
3P/2P/TTR/<Center point>: END of
[Select C (Figure 22).]
Diameter/<Radius> <50.0000>: 50

Figure 23

Figure 23 :  Ellipses and circle created.

From the objects created, form five regions. Then, use the UNION command and the SUBTRACT command to form complex regions. See Figure 24.

<Draw>     <Region>

Command: REGION
Select objects: [Select A, B, C, D, and E (Figure 23).]
Select objects: [Enter]

<Modify>     <Boolean>    <Union>

Command: UNION
Select objects: [Select A and B (Figure 23).]
Select objects: [Enter]


<Modify>     <Boolean>    <Subtract>

Command: SUBTRACT
Select solids and regions to subtract from...
Select objects: [Select C (Figure 23).]
Select objects: [Enter]
Select objects: Select solids and regions to subtract...
Select objects: [Select D and E (Figure 23).]
Select objects: [Enter]

Figure 24

Figure 24 : Regions united and subtract

The toilet is complete. The next item to create is the bath. Create two rectangles. One rectangle has square corners. The other one has rounded corners. See Figure 25.

<Draw>     <Rectangle>

Command: RECTANG
Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width/<First corner>: 1500,4100
Other corner: @1800,800

Command: [Enter]
RECTANG
Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width/<First corner>: F
Fillet radius for rectangles <0.0000>: 100
Chamfer/Elevation/Fillet/Thickness/Width/<First corner>: FROM
Base point: END of [Select A (Figure 25).]
<Offset>: @-100,-100
Other corner : FROM
Base point : END of [Select B (Figure 25).]
<Offset>:@100,100

Figure 25

Figure 25:  Rectangles created

 

Insert Washing Room Facilities

After creating the wash room facilities, use the BMAKE command to make three blocks-Bath, Toilet, and Basin. According to Figure 26, insert the blocks.

Figure 26

Figure 26 :  Completed floor plan

The drawing is complete. Save your drawing.

<File>    <Save>

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